Is there a place for autonomous gas supply in Belarus?
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Is there a place for autonomous gas supply in Belarus?13 May 2015
The topic of using natural gas as a vehicle fuel has not ceased to be relevant for over a decade.
As you know, in April 2013, the Belarusian government approved a set of measures to expand the use of natural gas as a motor fuel, which provides for the expansion of the NGV refueling network, as well as other measures, in particular, the production of a Belarusian car and bus running on compressed natural gas ( KKE).
In June 2013, the Russian government was tasked with developing a comprehensive plan to expand the use of gas as a vehicle fuel. The use of gas in transport in Russia should become widespread.
The main driving forces, for example, of the European NGV market, are still the requirements to reduce emissions of harmful substances from engine exhaust gases, reduce fuel costs in the public sector, and reduce oil dependence.
The European Commission has decided to formulate minimum targets for member countries to develop infrastructure for clean fuels / energy. They will be built and operated according to harmonized requirements. The developers of the strategy propose to establish not only the minimum number of filling / charging stations for each EU country, but also the maximum step of their construction along the highways. For CNG, this step will be no more than 150 km, and for LNG, no more than 400 km. Thus, by 2020, at least seven CNG stations and three cryo-filling stations should be built for every thousand kilometers of motorways. It is obvious that the CIS countries should take a direct part in this work, so as not to remain in normative self-isolation.
The potential of the European NGV market by 2030 is estimated at 45 billion cubic meters, including 15 billion cubic meters in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG).
According to experts, LNG is recognized as one of the most promising fuels. The leading positions in the consumption of liquefied natural gas are held by the United States and Western Europe. In Russia, since the beginning of the new millennium, interest in the use of LNG is constantly growing.
Reference. LNG is a cryogenic liquid that is stored under slight overpressure at about 112 K (-161 ° C) in a thermally insulated container. In terms of chemical composition, it is a multicomponent mixture of C1-C8 hydrocarbons, N2 nitrogen and CO2 carbon dioxide with a predominant content of methane - CH4. Liquefied natural gas is transparent, colorless and odorless. During liquefaction, the volume of natural gas is reduced by more than 600 times, which is equivalent to compressing gas to a pressure of 60 MPa.
The use of liquefied natural gas as a motor fuel for various types of vehicles (automobile, air, rail, water, etc.) provides energy and environmental benefits, and is also more cost-effective in comparison with traditional oil and other alternative types of motor vehicles. fuel.
The advantages of LNG are explained by its higher density (3 times) in relation to CNG, which makes it possible to significantly improve the technical performance of vehicles: to reduce the size and weight of the onboard fuel storage system; increase payload and power reserve from one refueling; reduce the overhead associated with idle runs through less frequent refueling.
Reference. The beginning of the use of LNG in the USSR dates back to the 50s of the last century, when the experience of using liquid methane was first undertaken or rural gas supply and fuel for road and rail transport. Interest in LNG has noticeably decreased due to the discovery of a natural gas field in Western Siberia and the construction of trunk gas pipelines.
The main advantage of LNG in comparison with network natural gas is its geographical adaptability. LNG makes it possible to diversify the methods of delivering blue fuel to large and medium-sized industrial and agricultural facilities, households and public facilities in regions remote from the gasification system.
One of the most modern directions for the development of LNG use is low-tonnage production at automobile gas-filling compressor and gas distribution stations (CNG filling stations and gas distribution stations) and mini-factories..
Russia has developed technologies for the production of liquefied natural gas based on the use of differential pressure and the use of external refrigeration cycles. On the basis of these technologies, gas equipment and production complexes have been created, intended for operation at any objects of the gas industry with high-pressure gas sources.
The following requirements are imposed on the technologies for liquefaction of main natural gas: compactness of equipment; ease of use; high liquefaction ratio; low energy consumption, etc. Ultimately, the choice of technical solutions and schematic diagrams of LNG plants for mini-plants should be based on a comprehensive feasibility study, taking into account all the features and conditions of the project.
Reference. General Electric has unveiled the first containerized small-tonnage natural gas liquefaction plant "LNG In A Box System" with a capacity of 16-18 tons of LNG per day. The advantages of the system include its compactness, ease of installation on a prepared site and operation, the ability to quickly move to a new point. It includes a gas treatment system, a liquefaction unit, a high-speed reciprocating compressor for vapors, a gas control and metering system, and auxiliary equipment. Outside the container are the LNG storage tank and the filling station.
Linde North America is also active in the field of compact LNG technologies. In particular, in 2013, it presented a mobile (on a car semitrailer) Cryo Gas Station for refueling LNG vehicles. Similar equipment is available in other countries.
In principle, the LNG gas supply scheme is as follows: a gas liquefaction plant is located on the main gas pipeline, its performance depends on the needs of the end consumer. Then LNG is transported in special cryogenic methane carriers to regasification points, where the gas changes from a liquid to a normal gaseous state, and already in this form is supplied to the consumer as local energy - as fuel for road construction and agricultural equipment, to individual enterprises, for example , roadside service facilities, boiler houses, the population of the most remote points. It is possible that a boom in the use of LNG for the gasification of individual housing construction projects may begin in the near future.
OJSC "Gazprom transgaz Belarus" is studying the issue of the prospects for the construction of a low-tonnage plant for liquefying natural gas. In order to determine its performance, we invite everyone interested to take part in an online dialogue about the prospects for the use of small-scale LNG plants in Belarus. Please post your questions and suggestions on our website. A protocol of intent may be signed with potential consumers on further cooperation in the framework of LNG supplies.
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